Refugee protest in Munich Joerg Koch/Stringer

Integrace uprchlíků – poučení z Německa

DAVOS – Vlády z celého světa stojí před obrovskou výzvou. Počet mezinárodních migrantů v posledních letech prudce vzrostl a předloni dosáhl čísla 244 milionů – to je oproti roku 2000 zvýšení o 41%. A protože tento počet zahrnuje i 20 milionů uprchlíků, musíme zajistit jejich rychlou a zodpovědnou integraci do hostitelských společností, chceme-li zabránit humanitární noční můře. Logistické problémy s tím spojené však vyvíjejí stále větší tlak na země, které čelí největšímu přílivu.

Německo, jež v roce 2015 přijalo zhruba 1,1 milionu osob, tento tlak dobře zná. Přesto se tato země nezlomila. Naopak zvládá tlak nadmíru dobře, což dokazuje, že při trvalé spolupráci vlád, firem a občanské společnosti mohou země rozvíjet účinné přístupy k naplňování potřeb uprchlíků i zemí, které je přijímají.

Aby daná země uspěla, musí zajistit, aby měla k dispozici kapacity, zdroje a struktury k efektivnímu zvládání potřeb uprchlíků. Zdravý management a koordinace mezi tranzitními a cílovými zeměmi mohou umožnit vládám, firmám, nevládním organizacím a humanitárním agenturám efektivnější řešení problémů, které se zákonitě vyskytnou. Současně platí, že mají-li aktéři v tranzitních i hostitelských zemích skutečně zajišťovat potřeby uprchlíků, musí se na vzniklé problémy dívat z jejich perspektivy.

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