La mano visible de la prosperidad económica

FRÁNKFURT – Alemania ha capeado la crisis financiera mucho mejor que la mayoría de sus vecinos. Hoy este país, que en época tan reciente como 1999 estaba considerado el enfermo de Europa, cuenta con la economía más fuerte del continente, cuyas exportaciones representan la cuarta parte, aproximadamente, de sus exportaciones. Su  tasa de desempleo, inferior al cinco por ciento sólo, es la mitad de la media europea. El presupuesto federal está equilibrado por primera vez en un decenio.

Pero sería un error suponer que los resultados económicos de Alemania vindican sus políticas. En realidad, el predominio económico actual de Alemania se ha basado en un marco normativo que representa una oposición directa al propugnado por el ex Canciller Ludwig Erhard, padre de su “milagro económico” posterior a la segunda guerra mundial.

En lugar del llamado ordoliberalismo de Erhard, en el que el Estado prepara el terreno para una economía de mercado en funcionamiento dirigiendo activamente el marco jurídico, la estrategia económica del gobierno de la Canciller Angela Merkel ha sido arbitrario, impulsado más por la conveniencia política que por una concepción subyacente. La prudencia aconseja a Alemania no dar por sentado su éxito económico. En un momento de incertidumbre económica y política cada vez mayor, los principios rectores de Erhard son más importantes que nunca.

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