Germany economy - Frankfurt Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images

Politika německého externího přebytku

MNICHOV – Debata o globální makroekonomické nerovnováze se čím dál silněji soustředí na přebytek běžného účtu a hospodářskou politiku Německa. Vzdor vitalitě německého ekonomického motoru a úloze, již plní při roztáčení růstu a udržování stability v eurozóně, sílí kritika masivního vnějšího přebytku země. Jak se nedávno vyjádřil časopis Economist, Německo „příliš mnoho uspoří a příliš málo utratí,“ což z něj dělá „nešikovného obhájce volného obchodu“.

Co má tedy Německo dělat? Odpověď závisí na tom, zda se rozhodování řídí ekonomií, nebo politikou.

Nynější kritika, která tento měsíc na summitu G20 v Hamburku vytvořila, slovy jednoho pozorovatele, „neklidné ovzduší“, se zaměřuje na dvě tvrzení. Zaprvé, příliš rozsáhlým vývozem a příliš slabými domácími investicemi Německo ubližuje samo sobě. Zadruhé, zbytku světa, zejména Spojeným státům, upírá Německo poptávku. Kdyby Německo víc přispívalo k celosvětovým výdajům, hospodářské zotavení z finanční krize roku 2008 by podle tohoto názoru bylo silnější.

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