German football paraphernalia.

Alemania no es Volkswagen

MÚNICH – El escándalo de Volkswagen ha puesto en entredicho el modelo alemán de producción. Si el éxito de los vehículos con motor diésel de la empresa se debió en parte a intentos de falsear sus niveles de emisión de contaminantes, ¿puede haber en otras empresas revelaciones similares que desacrediten la transformación de Alemania, de “enfermo de Europa” a potencia económica exportadora?

Felizmente, es casi seguro que la respuesta sea negativa. Las ventajas competitivas de Alemania no se basan en triquiñuelas, sino en la estructura de sus empresas y la cultura en la que operan. La principal automotriz alemana ha sido una excepción a las normas de fabricación que impulsaron el éxito del país y no un ejemplo de ellas.

De hecho, el éxito alemán suele citarse como modelo que otros países deberían imitar, y con razón. Desde el comienzo del siglo, el país creció hasta convertirse en uno de los mayores exportadores del mundo, más que el resto de los principales países europeos. De 2000 a 2013, las exportaciones alemanas crecieron un 154%, contra 127% las de España, 98% las del Reino Unido, 79% las de Francia y 72% las de Italia.

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