German football paraphernalia.

L'Allemagne n'est pas Volkswagen

MUNICH – Le scandale Volkswagen soulève plusieurs interrogations autour du modèle de production allemand. Si la réussite de ce constructeur de véhicules diesel doit en partie s'expliquer par de frauduleuses démarches consistant à dissimuler la quantité de polluants nocifs émis dans l'atmosphère, faut-il s'attendre à ce que de nouvelles révélations concernant d'autres entreprises viennent remettre en question l'importante transformation opérée par l'Allemagne, qui est passée du statut d' « homme malade de l'Europe »  à celui de grande puissance économique fondée sur les exportations ?

Fort heureusement, la réponse à cette question est très certainement négative. La compétitivité de l'Allemagne repose bien moins sur une arnaque que sur la manière dont ses grandes entreprises sont structurées, et sur la culture dans laquelle ces sociétés opèrent. Le premier constructeur automobile allemand constitue davantage une exception aux règles de fabrication ayant appuyé la réussite du pays que l'illustration de telles règles.

En effet, la réussite allemande est bien souvent présentée comme un modèle dont il s'agirait pour les autres pays de s'inspirer, et cela à juste titre. En ce début du siècle, l'Allemagne est devenue l'un des plus grands exportateurs de la planète, surpassant l'ensemble des grands États européens. Entre 2000 et 2013, les exportations allemandes ont enregistré une croissance de 154 %, contre 127 % en Espagne, 98 % au Royaume-Uni, 79 % en France, et 72 % en Italie.

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