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德国不是大众

慕尼黑—大众丑闻让人们对德国生产模式产生了质疑。既然大众公司柴油汽车的成功部分要归因于通过作弊隐瞒汽车排放有害污染物的量,那么其他公司类似丑闻的曝光是否会让人质疑德国从“欧洲病夫”向出口拉动型经济巨人的转型?

幸运的是,答案几乎可以肯定是否定的。德国的竞争优势与舞弊关系不大,而与企业结构和经营文化关系很大。大众汽车公司只是推动德国成功的制造业的例外,而绝非是典型。

事实上,德国的成功常常被当作其他国家应该效仿的模板。理应如此。本世纪初以来,德国已成长为世界领先的出口国之一,将其他所有欧洲大国甩在身后。从2000年到2013年,德国出口增长了154%,而西班牙增长了127%,英国98%,法国79%,意大利72%。

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