Genetische Eigentumsrechte vor Gericht

LONDON: Seit Anfang Februar 2010 befasst sich ein US-Bundesgericht in New York mit einem Präzedenzfall über die Frage, ob Menschen individuell ein Recht darauf haben, zu wissen, wie ihr eigenes Genom ihre zukünftige Gesundheit bestimmen kann. Der Fall, American Civil Liberties Union vs. Myriad Genetics , könnte enorme Auswirkungen auf Medizin und Naturwissenschaften haben.

Im Mittelpunkt des Verfahrens steht, ob genetische Patente der Forschung helfen oder sie behindern und ob Patienten verpflichtet sein sollten, eine Lizenzgebühr an ein biotechnologisches Unternehmen zu zahlen, um sich auf die Prädisposition für bestimmte Krankheiten testen zu lassen.

Eine der Klägerinnen ist Lisbeth Ceriani, eine 43-jährige Brustkrebspatientin, deren Ärzte ihr empfahlen, sich auf zwei genetische Mutationen testen zu lassen, die bei bestimmten vererbbaren Formen der Krankheit auftreten. Myriad Genetics, der einzige Anbieter dieses Tests in den USA – das Unternehmen hält ein Patent auf die Gene selbst , nicht nur auf den diagnostischen Test – akzeptierte ihre Versicherung nicht, und Ceriani selbst konnte sich den Test nicht leisten. Sie blieb also, wie ihre Ärzte auch, im Unklaren – mit möglichen Auswirkungen für ihre klinische Betreuung. Fünf weitere Kläger erzählen, gemeinsam mit wichtigen medizinischen Organisationen, ähnliche Geschichten.

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