Gaza damals und heute

Als infolge der israelischen Treibstoffblockade der Gazastreifen letzte Woche in Dunkelheit versank, waren viele Menschen auf der ganzen Welt überrascht. Doch der vom Friedensprozess von Annapolis, der das Versprechen von Präsident George W. Bush einer Übereinkunft zur Schaffung eines palästinensischen Staates beinhaltete, erzeugte Optimismus war eindeutig unrealistisch.

Gaza wird normalerweise unter dem Aspekt der überwältigenden Zustimmung für die Hamas dort betrachtet. Die Realität freilich sieht anders aus: Von der Near East Consulting Group Ende November 2007 im Gazastreifen durchgeführte Meinungsumfragen ließen erkennen, dass 74% der Bevölkerung einen Friedensvertrag mit Israel unterstützen. Nur 15% würden für Hamas-Abgeordnete oder einen Präsidentschaftskandidaten der Hamas stimmen, verglichen mit 55% für Fatah-Kandidaten. Der von Annapolis inspirierte Friedensprozess wurde von 81% der Befragten unterstützt.

Wie viele Gebiete in der Region kann Gaza auf eine lange Geschichte ausländischer Besetzungen zurückblicken, die bis in die Antike zurückreicht. Im Jahr 1949 endete der arabisch-israelische Krieg mit einem Waffenstillstand, der Palästina in drei Teile zerschnitt, die jeweils unter separater politischer Kontrolle standen. Israel umfasste mehr als 77% des Gebietes, Jordanien erhielt die Herrschaft über Ostjerusalem und das Westjordanland, und Ägypten übernahm die Kontrolle über Gaza. Der im Teilungsplan der Vereinten Nationen von 1947 vorgesehene palästinensisch-arabische Staat, der auch Gaza umfassen sollte, wurde nie gegründet.

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