Gaza hier et aujourd’hui

Lorsque la bande de Gaza a été plongée dans l'obscurité la semaine dernière à la suite du blocus israélien, nombreux sont ceux qui ont été surpris dans le monde. L'optimisme au lendemain du processus de paix d'Annapolis, notamment la promesse du président George W. Bush d'un accord en 2008 pour la création d'un État palestinien, n’est visiblement pas réaliste.

Gaza évoque généralement le soutien écrasant du Hamas, mais la réalité est bien différente. Selon les sondages d'opinion effectués là-bas par le Near East Consulting Group à la fin novembre 2007, 74 % de la population soutiennent les accords de paix avec Israël ; seulement 15 % voteront pour le député ou le candidat à la présidentielle du Hamas et 55 % pour les candidats du Fatah. Le processus de paix de la conférence d'Annapolis était soutenu par 81 % de la population.

Comme bon nombre de territoires de la région, Gaza a une longue histoire d'occupation étrangère. En 1949, la guerre arabo-israélienne s'est conclue par un armistice qui a divisé la Palestine en trois parties, chacune sous contrôle politique séparé. Israël couvrait plus de 77 % du territoire ; la Jordanie devait gouverner Jérusalem Est et la Cisjordanie ; et l'Égypte prenait le contrôle de Gaza. L'État arabe palestinien envisagé par le plan de partition de 1947 des Nations unies, qui devait inclure Gaza, n'a jamais été créé.

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