Gaza tehdy a teď

Když se pásmo Gazy v důsledku izraelské palivové blokády ponořilo minulý týden do temnoty, řadu lidí po celém světě to překvapilo. Optimismus navozený mírovým procesem v Annapolisu, který zahrnoval i slib amerického prezidenta George W. Bushe, že v roce 2008 bude uzavřena dohoda o vytvoření palestinského státu, však byl očividně nerealistický.

Gaza je obvykle nazírána prizmatem tamní drtivé podpory Hamásu, avšak realita je velmi odlišná. Výzkumy veřejného mínění, které v Gaze koncem listopadu 2007 provedla agentura Near East Consulting Group, ukázaly, že 74% obyvatel podporuje mírovou dohodu s Izraelem. Pouze 15% lidí by hlasovalo pro poslance nebo prezidentského kandidáta z Hamásu, oproti 55% hlasů pro kandidáty Fatáhu. Mírový proces inspirovaný konferencí v Annapolisu si získal podporu 81% obyvatel.

Stejně jako mnoho dalších oblastí v regionu má za sebou i Gaza dlouhou historii zahraničních okupací, které sahají až do starověku. V roce 1949 skončila arabsko-izraelská válka dohodou o příměří, které rozdělilo Palestinu na tři části, z nichž každá měla vlastní politickou kontrolu. Izrael zabral více než 77% území, Jordánsku byla ponechána vláda ve východním Jeruzalémě a na západním břehu Jordánu, zatímco Egypt převzal kontrolu nad Gazou. Palestinsko-arabský stát, s nímž Organizace spojených národů počítala ve svém plánu o rozdělení z roku 1947 a který měl zahrnovat i Gazu, nebyl nikdy vytvořen.

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