Gaza : l'échec de la dissuasion

La dissuasion stratégique (prévenir l'attaque d'un ennemi potentiel en lui inspirant la peur des représailles avec à l'appui une puissance militaire supérieure) se trouve mise à l'épreuve quotidiennement dans la bande de Gaza. La spirale d'escalade de la violence dans laquelle sont enfermés Israël et les activistes de Gaza traduit non seulement l'échec de la dissuasion, mais le fait que son efficacité est liée à des valeurs morales fondamentales.

Certains stratégistes en matière de sécurité et des théoriciens de la guerre juste estiment que la dissuasion n'est peut-être pas moralement condamnable si la vie et le bien-être des populations civiles ne s'en trouvent pas directement affectés. La menace de représailles sur laquelle repose la dissuasion reste implicite et hypothétique. Néanmoins, quand la dissuasion devient punition collective - interdite en droit international par l'article 33 de la Quatrième convention de Genève - elle a peu de chance de se révéler efficace.

Israël, qui s'est retiré unilatéralement en périphérie de Gaza en septembre 2005, cherche à empêcher les combattants de la résistance palestinienne de lancer des rockets sur son territoire. Peu après son redéploiement aux frontières de Gaza, Israël a considérablement limité les déplacements entre Gaza et la Cisjordanie, ainsi que les mouvements de marchandises à l'entrée et à la sortie de Gaza. Quand en janvier 2006 un parlement dominé par le Hamas a été élu à l'issue d'élections libres et équitables, les USA et Israël ont mené une campagne pour que les banques, y compris les banques arabes et islamiques, ne traitent pas avec le nouveau gouvernement.

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