filling up with gas Charlie Neuman/ZumaPress

改革燃料定价正当时

美国剑桥—世界油价在过去十年中波动剧烈,而在去年下跌超过50%。其经济效应对石油出国来说总体为负,而对石油进口国来说总体为正。但间接经济影响如何?如果我们关注环境和其他外部性,那么我们是应该希望油价上涨(因为这会遏制石油消费)还是油价下跌(因为这将遏制石油生产)?

答案是各国应该同时追求这两个目标:降低支付给石油生产商的价格提高消费者所支付的价格,办法可以是降低石油和石化产品补贴或提高税收。许多新兴市场国家利用下跌的石油价格实施了这方面的改革。如今令人意外地接近能源自给、因此宏观经济效果总体平衡的美国也应该赶上来。

想想这一点:美国公路和桥梁破败不堪,全国交通基础设施需要投资和维护。但美国国会可耻地一直逃避为联邦高速公路信托基金(Federal Highway Trust Fund)提供资金并为它奠定可靠的长期基础的责任,原因就在于如何出资问题得不到解决。显而易见的方案——也是经济学家长期呼吁的方案——是提高美国汽油税。联邦汽油税自1993年以来一直维持在每加仑18.4美分,是发达国家中最低的。但在7月30日,国会只采取了为期三个月的临时措施,自2009年以来第35次回避此问题。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/CJuDN18/zh;
  1. Sean Gallup/Getty Images

    Angela Merkel’s Endgame?

    The collapse of coalition negotiations has left German Chancellor Angela Merkel facing a stark choice between forming a minority government or calling for a new election. But would a minority government necessarily be as bad as Germans have traditionally thought?

  2. Trump Trade speech Bill Pugliano/Getty Images .

    Preparing for the Trump Trade Wars

    In the first 11 months of his presidency, Donald Trump has failed to back up his words – or tweets – with action on a variety of fronts. But the rest of the world's governments, and particularly those in Asia and Europe, would be mistaken to assume that he won't follow through on his promised "America First" trade agenda.

  3. A GrabBike rider uses his mobile phone Bay Ismoyo/Getty Images

    The Platform Economy

    While developed countries in Europe, North America, and Asia are rapidly aging, emerging economies are predominantly youthful. Nigerian, Indonesian, and Vietnamese young people will shape global work trends at an increasingly rapid pace, bringing to bear their experience in dynamic informal markets on a tech-enabled gig economy.

  4. Trump Mario Tama/Getty Images

    Profiles in Discouragement

    One day, the United States will turn the page on Donald Trump. But, as Americans prepare to observe their Thanksgiving holiday, they should reflect that their country's culture and global standing will never recover fully from the wounds that his presidency is inflicting on them.

  5. Mugabe kisses Grace JEKESAI NJIKIZANA/AFP/Getty Images

    How Women Shape Coups

    In Zimbabwe, as in all coups, much behind-the-scenes plotting continues to take place in the aftermath of the military's overthrow of President Robert Mugabe. But who the eventual winners and losers are may depend, among other things, on the gender of the plotters.

  6. Oil barrels Ahmad Al-Rubaye/Getty Images

    The Abnormality of Oil

    At the 2017 Abu Dhabi Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, the consensus among industry executives was that oil prices will still be around $60 per barrel in November 2018. But there is evidence to suggest that the uptick in global growth and developments in Saudi Arabia will push the price as high as $80 in the meantime.

  7. Israeli soldier Menahem Kahana/Getty Images

    The Saudi Prince’s Dangerous War Games

    Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman is working hard to consolidate power and establish his country as the Middle East’s only hegemon. But his efforts – which include an attempt to trigger a war between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon – increasingly look like the work of an immature gambler.