Irak: esta vez, la intervención correcta

CANBERRA – El presidente de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, merece apoyo incondicional por su decisión de usar la fuerza militar para proteger a la minoría yazidí de la persecución de los militantes del Estado Islámico (EI) en el norte de Irak, que amenazan con cometer con ellas un genocidio. La acción de Estados Unidos es totalmente coherente con el principio de responsabilidad internacional de proteger a personas en riesgo de sufrir atrocidades a gran escala, adoptado en forma unánime por la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas en 2005. La intervención militar estadounidense satisface plenamente los criterios de este principio en cuanto a legalidad, legitimidad y eficacia probable para el cumplimiento de los objetivos inmediatos.

En contraste con la intervención militar original en Irak (que no cumplía ninguno de estos criterios), la acción actual de Estados Unidos, aunque no tenga autorización del Consejo de Seguridad, es a pedido del gobierno iraquí, de modo que indiscutiblemente no hay violación del derecho internacional. Y cumpliría claramente los criterios morales o precautorios para el uso de la fuerza militar, que si bien aún no han sido adoptados formalmente por Naciones Unidas ni por otras partes, gozan de amplia aceptación internacional y han sido abundantemente debatidos a lo largo de la última década.

Los criterios de legitimidad son: que las atrocidades cometidas o temidas sean suficientemente graves para justificar, prima facie, una respuesta militar; que la respuesta se emprenda ante todo por razones humanitarias; que sea razonable suponer que cualquier respuesta de menor escala sería ineficaz para detener o evitar el daño que se desea impedir; que la respuesta en consideración sea proporcional a la amenaza; y que la intervención sea realmente eficaz y no provoque más daño del que repara.

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