Arab student Mohammed Huwais/Stringer via Getty Images

La brecha de la emancipación en la educación árabe

PARÍS – La discusión sobre la educación en el mundo árabe solo en raras ocasiones se ha centrado en el papel de la enseñanza para cambiar las costumbres y convenciones sociales y políticas. Es algo desafortunado, porque los ciudadanos educados de los países árabes tienden a ser, en promedio, mucho menos emancipados política y socialmente que sus pares en otras partes del mundo. Si las sociedades árabes han de ser más abiertas y económicamente dinámicas, sus sistemas educativos tendrán que abrazar y promover valores adecuados a esa meta.

La brecha quedó reflejada en la Encuesta Mundial de Valores (EMV), una encuesta de opinión mundial que permite comparar una amplia gama de valores en distintos países. Recientemente, la EMV cubrió 12 países árabes —Jordán, Egipto, Palestina, Líbano, Iraq, Marruecos, Argelia, Túnez, Qatar, Yemen, Kuwait, y Libia— además de 47 países no árabes. Los resultados nos permiten comparar por primera vez a los residentes de una parte considerable del mundo árabe con los ciudadanos de otras partes del planeta.

La EMV mide cuatro valores políticos y sociales reveladores: apoyo a la democracia, disposición para la participación cívica, obediencia a la autoridad y apoyo a valores patriarcales que apuntalan la discriminación contra la mujer. A medida que el país típico se hace más rico y educado, y se abre políticamente, el apoyo a la democracia y la disposición para la participación cívica aumentan, y la obediencia a la autoridad y la defensa de los valores patriarcales disminuyen.

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