Arab student Mohammed Huwais/Stringer via Getty Images

Il divario dell’emancipazione nell’istruzione araba

PARIGI – La discussione sull’istruzione nel mondo arabo si è raramente focalizzata sul ruolo della scuola nel cambiamento delle tradizioni sociali e politiche, e questo è un errore in quanto i cittadini istruiti dei paesi arabi tendono ad essere in media molto meno emancipati dal punto di vista sociale e politico rispetto ai loro omologhi in altre parti del mondo. Se le società arabe dovessero diventare più aperte e dinamiche da un punto di vista economico, i loro sistemi educativi dovrebbero necessariamente abbracciare e promuovere i valori adeguati a raggiungere tale obiettivo.

Questo divario è ben rappresentato nel World Value Survey (WVS), un sondaggio sulle opinioni globali che permette di paragonare un’ampia gamma di valori in diversi paesi. Recentemente il WVS ha condotto un sondaggio in 12 paesi arabi (Giordania, Egitto, Palestina, Lebano, Iraq, Marocco, Algeria, Qatar, Yemen, Kuwait e Libia) e in altri 47 paesi non arabi. I risultati ci permettono di comparare per la prima volta i cittadini che vivono in una parte rilevante del mondo arabo ai cittadini degli altri paesi.

Il WVS prende in considerazione quattro valori politici e sociali rilevanti: sostegno alla democrazia, disponibilità all’impegno civico, obbedienza all’autorità, sostegno ai valori patriarcali su cui si fonda la discriminazione nei confronti della donna. Quando un paese diventa più ricco, più istruito e più aperto da un punto di vista politico, il sostegno alla democrazia e la disponibilità all’impegno civico aumentano, mentre l’obbedienza all’autorità ed il sostegno ai valori patriarcali diminuiscono.

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