Arab student Mohammed Huwais/Stringer via Getty Images

Emansipasi yang Timpang dalam Pendidikan di Dunia Arab

PARIS – Pembahasan tentang pendidikan di dunia Arab jarang sekali berfokus pada peran sekolah dalam mengubah nilai-nilai sosial dan politik. Hal ini sungguh disayangkan sebab rata-rata penduduk di negara-negara Arab yang terdidik cenderung tidak bebas secara politik dan sosial, dibandingkan sejawatnya di negara-negara lain. Jika masyarakat Arab ingin lebih terbuka dan memiliki perekonomian yang dinamis, sistem pendidikan yang berlaku sekarang perlu merangkul dan mempromosikan nilai-nilai yang sejalan dengan tujuan itu.

Kesenjangan ini tercermin dalam World Value Survey (WVS), sebuah jajak pendapat global yang membuat perbandingan atas beragam nilai di beberapa negara. Baru-baru ini, WVS melakukan survei terhadap 12 negara Arab – Yordania, Mesir, Palestina, Lebanon, Irak, Maroko, Aljazair, Tunisia, Qatar, Yaman, Kuwait, dan Libya – dan 47 negara di luar Arab. Survei ini menghasilkan hasil perbandingan penduduk di dunia Arab dengan kawasan lain yang tidak pernah diperoleh sebelumnya.

WVS mengukur empat nilai politik dan sosial yang dianggap penting: dukungan pada demokrasi, kesiapan partisipasi sipil, kepatuhan pada penguasa, dan dukungan pada nilai-nilai patriarkal yang melandasi diskriminasi terhadap perempuan. Ketika negara umumnya bertambah makmur, lebih berpendidikan, dan lebih terbuka secara politik, dukungan pada demokrasi dan kesiapan partisipasi sipilnya akan meningkat, dan kepatuhan pada penguasa dan dukungan pada nilai-nilai patriarkal akan melemah.

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