Arab student Mohammed Huwais/Stringer via Getty Images

L’éducation dans les pays arabes à l’origine d’un déficit d’émancipation

PARIS – Les discussions relatives à l’éducation au sein du monde arabe se concentrent trop rarement sur le rôle de l’école dans l’évolution des mœurs politiques et sociales ; un constat regrettable, dans la mesure où les citoyens instruits des pays arabes sont dans l’ensemble beaucoup moins émancipés, sur le plan politique et social, que les citoyens d’autres pays du monde. Si les sociétés arabes entendent s’ouvrir davantage et devenir économiquement plus dynamiques, il va leur falloir offrir un système d’éducation qui intègre et promeuve les valeurs nécessaires à cet objectif.

Ce déficit se retrouve dans le World Value Survey (WVS), sondage de l’opinion au niveau mondial, qui permet de comparer un large ensemble de valeurs entre les différents pays. Récemment, le WVS a mené une étude concernant 12 pays arabes – Jordanie, Égypte, Palestine, Liban, Irak, Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie, Qatar, Yémen, Koweït, et Lybie – ainsi que 47 pays extérieurs au monde arabe. Les résultats de ce sondage nous permettent pour la première fois de comparer la mentalité d’une grande partie du monde arabe avec celle des citoyens du reste de la planète.

Le WVS mesure quatre valeurs politiques et sociales très révélatrices : le soutien à la démocratie, la volonté d’engagement civique, l’obéissance à l’autorité, ainsi que le soutien aux valeurs patriarcales qui sous-tendent la discrimination à l’encontre des femmes. De manière générale, à mesure qu’un État devient plus riche, plus instruit, et politiquement plus ouvert, le soutien à la démocratie et la volonté d’engagement civique augmentent, tandis qu’ont tendance à diminuer l’obéissance à l’autorité et le soutien aux valeurs patriarcales.

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