Megaproject VirginiaDoT/Flickr

A Era dos Megaprojectos

WASHINGTON, DC – Parece que estamos a entrar numa nova era de megaprojectos em que os países, em especial os do G20, incentivam o sector privado a investir fortemente em infra-estruturas que custam vários milhões de dólares (se não milhares de milhões, ou mesmo biliões), como gasodutos, barragens, sistemas hídricos, redes eléctricas e redes rodoviárias.

A despesa em megaprojectos eleva-se já a cerca de 6 a 9 biliões de dólares por ano, ou seja, cerca de 8% do PIB mundial, o que a torna “o maior boom de investimentos da história da humanidade”. Além disso, a geopolítica, a procura do crescimento económico, de novos mercados e de recursos naturais está a canalizar ainda mais financiamento para projectos de infra-estruturas de grande dimensão. No pico desta explosão potencialmente sem precedentes de tais projectos, os líderes e os credores mundiais parecem ser relativamente alheios às onerosas lições do passado.

De facto, os investimentos em infra-estruturas podem servir necessidades reais, contribuindo para dar resposta a um aumento esperado da procura de géneros alimentícios, água e energia. Contudo, a menos que a explosão de megaprojectos seja cuidadosamente redireccionada e gerida, é provável que o esforço se venha a revelar contraproducente e insustentável. Na ausência de controlos democráticos, os investidores podem privatizar os lucros e socializar as perdas, fixando-se em abordagens de utilização intensiva de carbono e outras que geram prejuízos ambientais e sociais.

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