Megaproject VirginiaDoT/Flickr

L’era delle grandi opere

WASHINGTON, DC – In alcuni paesi, soprattutto del G-20, il settore privato viene sempre più mobilitato per investire in progetti infrastrutturali multi-milionari (se non multi-miliardari), come oleodotti, dighe, sistemi idrici ed elettrici e reti stradali. La sensazione è che ci stiamo addentrando in una nuova era di grandi opere.

La spesa per le grandi opere ammonta già a circa 6-9mila miliardi di dollari l’anno – una somma pari all’8% del Pil mondiale – e rappresenta il “maggior boom di investimenti nella storia dell’umanità”. Geopolitica, crescita economica, espansione dei mercati e ricerca di risorse naturali stanno convogliando sempre più fondi nei grandi progetti infrastrutturali. Mentre stiamo per assistere a un’esplosione forse senza precedenti di queste iniziative, leader mondiali e prestatori sembrano aver dimenticato le costose lezioni del passato.

Gli investimenti nelle infrastrutture possono certamente soddisfare bisogni reali contribuendo a far fronte al previsto aumento della domanda di cibo, acqua ed energia. Tuttavia, a meno che la proliferazione di questi mega-progetti non sia attentamente monitorata e gestita, c’è il rischio che il risultato sia controproducente e insostenibile. Senza controlli democratici, gli investitori possono privatizzare i profitti e socializzare le perdite, imponendo scelte ad alta intensità di carbonio o altrimenti dannose dal punto di vista ambientale e sociale.

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