Megaproject VirginiaDoT/Flickr

Éra megaprojektů

WASHINGTON, DC – Zdá se, že vstupujeme do nové éry megaprojektů, kdy státy – zejména pak členové skupiny G-20 – mobilizují soukromý sektor, aby masivně investoval do mnohamilionových (ne-li do mnohamiliardových či mnohabilionových) infrastrukturálních iniciativ, jako jsou ropovody a plynovody, přehrady, vodní a elektrárenské systémy nebo silniční sítě.

Výdaje na megaprojekty už dnes činí přibližně 6-9 bilionů dolarů ročně, což je zhruba 8% globálního HDP, takže jde o „největší investiční boom v lidských dějinách“. A geopolitika, honba za hospodářským růstem, obsazování nových trhů a hledání přírodních zdrojů čerpají do rozsáhlých infrastrukturálních projektů další prostředky. Zdá se však, že vedoucí světoví představitelé a věřitelé jsou si na vrcholu této potenciálně bezprecedentní exploze podobných projektů pramálo vědomi nákladných zkušeností z dřívějška.

Jistě, investice do infrastruktury mohou sloužit skutečným potřebám a pomáhat uspokojit očekávaný vzestup poptávky po potravinách, vodě a energii. Nebude-li se však exploze megaprojektů pečlivě usměrňovat a řídit, pak bude toto úsilí pravděpodobně kontraproduktivní a trvale neudržitelné. Bez demokratických kontrolních mechanismů mohou investoři privatizovat zisky a socializovat ztráty nebo tvrdošíjně volit uhlíkově intenzivní či jinak ekologicky a společensky škodlivé přístupy.

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