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El G-20 abraza las finanzas verdes

BEIJING – Los ministros de Finanzas y los gobernadores de bancos centrales del G-20 han comenzado a emprender un cambio de mentalidad asombroso. Están cada vez más convencidos de que las "finanzas verdes" -que financian un crecimiento sustentable para el medio ambiente- deberían estar en el centro de las estrategias de desarrollo económico. Una idea de estas características, hasta hace poco confinada a un grupo de académicos y responsables de formular políticas, es potencialmente una de las nuevas "verdades" más importantes del siglo XXI.

El modelo de desarrollo económico convencional consideraba la protección ambiental como un "producto de lujo" que las sociedades sólo podían permitirse cuando se volvían ricas. Ese razonamiento explica por qué el crecimiento espectacular del ingreso global, 80 veces en términos reales durante el pasado siglo, ha estado acompañado por una caída, según el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente, del capital natural en 127 de 140 países.

Ahora bien, el capital natural no es sólo un concepto abstracto; sustenta vidas, ingresos y bienestar social. La destrucción ambiental que están provocando nuestras actividades -las emisiones de gases de tipo invernadero agregan energía al sistema de la Tierra a una tasa equivalente a la detonación de cuatro bombas nucleares por segundo- tiene consecuencias concretas, que ya están afectando a millones de personas.

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