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Le G20 en route vers la finance verte

BEIJING – Les ministres des Finances du G20 et les gouverneurs des banques centrales ont commencé à entreprendre un changement de mentalité étonnant. Ils sont devenus de plus en plus convaincus que la « finance verte » – le financement d’une croissance durable sur le plan environnemental – devrait être au centre des stratégies de développement économique. Une telle idée, qui était jusque récemment limitée à une minorité d’universitaires et de décideurs politiques, est potentiellement l'une des plus importantes de nouvelles « vérités » du XXIe siècle.

Le modèle de développement économique classique considérait la protection de l'environnement comme un « bien de luxe » que les sociétés pouvaient se permettre seulement après être devenues riches. Un tel raisonnement explique pourquoi la croissance spectaculaire du revenu mondial, d’un facteur 80 en termes réels au cours du siècle dernier, a été accompagnée d'une baisse, selon le Programme des Nations Unies pour l'environnement, du capital naturel dans 127 pays sur 140.

Or, le capital naturel n’est pas qu’un concept abstrait; il permet la vie et fournit moyens de subsistance et bien-être à la société. La destruction de l’environnement causée par nos activités – les émissions de GES ajoutent de l'énergie au système terrestre à une vitesse équivalente à l'explosion de quatre bombes nucléaires chaque seconde – a des conséquences concrètes, dont souffrent déjà des millions de personnes.

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