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El trabajo en un futuro automatizado

LONDRES – Hoy las tecnologías disruptivas están dictando nuestro futuro, a medida que las innovaciones difuminan cada vez más los límites entre los ámbitos físico, digital y biológico. Los robots ya están en nuestras salas de operaciones y restaurantes de comida rápida; hoy podemos usar imágenes en 3D y extracción de células madre para desarrollar huesos humanos a partir de las células del propio paciente, y la impresión en 3D está creando una economía circular en que podemos usar y reutilizar las materias primas.

Este tsunami de innovación tecnológica seguirá cambiando profundamente nuestra manera de vivir y trabajar, y cómo funcionan nuestras sociedades. En lo que hoy se llama la Cuarta Revolución Industrial, convergerán las tecnologías que alcanzan su mayoría de edad, como la robótica, la nanotecnología, la realidad virtual, la impresión 3D, la Internet de las Cosas, la inteligencia artificial y la biología avanzada. Y a medida que se las siga desarrollando y adoptando ampliamente, producirán cambios radicales en todas las disciplinas, sectores y economías, y en la manera como las personas, las compañías y las sociedades producen, distribuyen, consumen y desechan los bienes y servicios.

Asimismo, han dado origen a ansiosas preguntas sobre el papel que los seres humanos desempeñarán en un mundo dominado por la tecnología. Un estudio realizado por la Universidad de Oxford en 2013 estima que cerca de la mitad de los empleos de Estados Unidos se podrían perder debido a la automatización en las próximas dos décadas. Por otra parte, economistas como James Bessen, de la Universidad de Boston, argumentan que la automatización va de la mano con la creación de nuevos empleos. Entonces, cuál de las dos consecuencias es… ¿nuevos empleos o un desempleo estructural masivo?

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