Virtual Reality Samsung test Paris Antoine Gyori - Corbis

Pekerjaan di Masa Depan yang Terotomasi

LONDON - Teknologi disruptif kini mendikte masa depan kita, seiring dengan adanya inovasi baru yang semakin mengaburkan batas antara dunia fisik, digital dan biologis. Sekarang sudah ada robot yang dipergunakan di ruang operasi dan restoran cepat saji; kita sekarang bisa menggunakan pencitraan 3D dan melakukan ekstraksi stem cell untuk membuat tulang manusia dari sel pasien itu sendiri; dan teknologi pencetakan 3D juga telah menciptakan siklus ekonomi dimana kita bisa berulang kali menggunakan bahan mentah.    

Besarnya gelombang inovasi teknologi akan terus menciptakan banyak perubahan dalam cara kita hidup, bekerja, dan cara masyarakat berinteraksi. Dalam situasi yang disebut sebagai Revolusi Industri Keempat, akan terjadi puncak kematangan dari teknologi – termasuk robot, nanoteknologi, realitas maya, pencetakan 3D, Internet of Things, kecerdasan buatan, dan biologi tingkat lanjut. Dan seiring dengan perkembangan dan penggunaan yang terus menerus dari teknologi-teknologi ini, akan terjadi perubahan radikal di semua bidang ilmu pengetahuan, industri, dan ekonomi, serta dalam cara individu, perusahaan, dan masyarakat menghasilkan, mendistribusikan, menggunakan, dan membuang barang-barang serta jasa.  

Perkembangan ini telah menghasilkan pertanyaan-pertanyaan bernada cemas mengenai peran yang akan dimainkan oleh manusia dalam dunia yang penuh teknologi. Sebuah penelitian Universitas Oxford memperkirakan bahwa hampir separuh dari seluruh pekerjaan di Amerika Serikat bisa hilang karena adanya proses otimatisasi dalam dua dekade kedepan. Disamping itu, ekonom seperti James Bessen dari Universitas Boston memberikan argumentasi bahwa otomatisasi sering sejalan dengan terciptanya lapangan kerja baru. Jadi apakah yang akan terjadi – penciptaan lapangan kerja baru atau terjadinya pengangguran struktural?

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