От ресурсного проклятия к благословлению

КАМПАЛА. Открытие новых месторождений природных ископаемых в ряде африканских стран ‑ в том числе в Гане, Уганде, Танзании и Мозамбике – поднимает важный вопрос: станет ли это непредвиденное богатство благословением, которое приносит процветание и надежду, или политическим и экономическим проклятием, как это было во многих странах?

В среднем, богатые природными ресурсами страны показали результаты хуже, чем страны без ресурсов. Они росли более медленно и с большим неравенством ‑ как раз в противоположность тому, что можно было бы ожидать. В конце концов, налогообложение природных ресурсов по высокой ставке не заставит их исчезнуть, а это означает, что страны, основным источником доходов которых являются природные ресурсы, могут использовать налоговые поступления для финансирования образования, здравоохранения, развития и перераспределения.

Чтобы объяснить это «ресурсное проклятие», было написано много литературы по экономике и политологии, а также были созданы группы гражданского общества (например, «Надзор за доходами» и «Инициатива прозрачности добывающих отраслей»), чтобы попытаться ему противостоять. Три экономических компонента проклятия хорошо известны:

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