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资源福祸辩

坎帕拉—在一些非洲国家(包括加纳、乌干达、坦桑尼亚和莫桑比克),新自然资源的发现引发了一个重要问题:这些飞来横财是富还是祸?会带来繁荣和希望还是与众多先例一样成为政治和经济的诅咒?

平均而言,资源富裕国要比资源贫乏国表现更差。资源富裕国增长更慢,不平等性也更严重,与你所设想的正好相反。毕竟,对自然资源课以高额税收不会让它们消失,这意味着以自然资源为主要收入来源的国家可以用它们来为教育、医疗、发展和再分配融资。

经济学和政治学有一个较大的分支致力于解释这一“资源的诅咒”,公民社会团体(如岁入观察和采掘业透明度计划)的成立便是为了与此斗争。众所周知,资源的诅咒包括三大经济成分:

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