从人民权力到普京权力

上个礼拜,我参加了在巴黎举行的缅怀俄国记者安娜·波利特科夫斯卡娅(Anna Politkovskaya)的一场规模很小却不失庄重的纪念仪式。借用与她合作的法国编辑对她的评价,安娜是一个“大无畏”的女人。安娜的纪念仪式不禁让我想起17年前在莫斯科参加的另外一次悼念活动。与波利特科夫斯卡娅不同的是,伟大的科学家和人权活动家安德烈·萨哈罗夫(Andrei Sakharov)并非死于谋杀,而那次举办的悼念活动更像是在庆祝一个崭新时代的开始。历史翻开了新的一页,在成为“正常国家”的漫长道路上,俄国局势在充满变数的同时也充满了希望。

随着波利特科夫斯卡娅遭到暗害,这充满希望的一页也许永远地合上了。这一小群知识分子在巴黎聚会,缅怀的是自己对改变俄国现状的期望。我们埋葬的是知识分子和民主人士共同的梦想,我们曾经盼望在苏联漫长而寒冷的严冬过后,自由和法治会在一片废墟上生根发芽、开花结果。波利特科夫斯卡娅的遗像就像一面镜子,折射出无比黑暗的现实世界。梦想破碎了。它也许从来就未曾实现。

今天我们所看到的是一个截然不同的世界。俄国简直是用大把的钞票买回了国际体系中引人注目的地位,石油和天然气代替核武器,为俄国重新赢回了权力和影响,贪婪也最终代替了恐惧。苏联的恐怖平衡时代已经一去不返,单方面依赖俄国能源的时代已经到来。俄国的亿万富翁用大笔的金钱在世界各地购买豪华资产,而俄国则以其雄厚的财力拉拢像前总理格哈德·施罗德那样的德国显贵,甚至用这种方式买到了德国的支持。

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