Un rôle payant au Moyen-orient

La politique de l’Union européenne au Moyen-orient est le test décisif de sa politique étrangère et de sa politique de sécurité. De nombreux Européens partagent cet avis, mais, alors que l’UE envisage d’entrer dans l’arène des pourparlers de paix du Moyen-orient, elle doit affronter le quolibet de l’ancien Premier ministre israélien Ariel Sharon selon lequel “vous êtes des payeurs, pas des acteurs.”

Pourtant, la contribution potentielle de l’Europe ne devrait pas être sous-estimée. La contribution financière de l’Europe au Moyen-orient a été consistante et impressionnante. Entre 1995 et 1999, elle a dépensé environ 3,4 milliards d’euros dans la région, auxquels la Banque d’investissement européenne a ajouté 4,8 milliards sous forme de prêts. De 2000 à 2006, l’Europe a dépensé 5,35 milliards d’euros de plus, et la BIE a approuvé 6,4 milliards d’euros de prêts. Cette année, la Commission européenne a engagé 320 millions rien qu’en Palestine.

ça, c’est pour le côté payeur. Mais l’aide financière de l’Europe a-t-elle œuvré au rapprochement de la perspective de la paix ? L’Autorité palestinienne a reçu plus d’aide par personne que l’Europe d’après-guerre dans le cadre du plan Marshall, et pourtant le tournant du conflit israélo-palestinien a contrecarré les espoirs d’un cadre euro-méditerranéen plus vaste, qui permettrait une politique de dialogue et d’investissement permettant de réelles améliorations dans la vie de millions de personnes.

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