From Neoliberalism to No Liberalism?

WASHINGTON, DC – L’ère du capitalisme de marché, lancé dans les années 1980 par Margaret Thatcher et Ronald Reagan et que ses détracteurs nommaient souvent “néolibéralisme”, est révolue. La crise financière qui s’obstine a eu raison de ce courant idéologique, mais son déclin ne date pas d’hier. Ces dernières années, pendant que les dirigeants américains chevauchaient la vague néolibérale, le reste du monde, ou presque, était déjà sur le rivage.

Le néolibéralisme et le tout-marché ont fini par tomber en disgrâce auprès des pays en développement, qui en étaient pourtant des partisans convaincus. Les pays latino-américains, qui s’étaient ralliés dans les années 1990 à la politique de l’économie de marché, s’en sont détournés au milieu des années 2000, avec l’arrivée au pouvoir d’une cohorte de leaders de gauche. La Russie, qui avait choisi d’axer ses réformes sur le marché dans les années 1990, est passée à une forme de capitalisme d’Etat et elle a forcé les oligarques à se mettre sous le contrôle de l’Etat.

Les Etats Unis, la Commission européenne et les banques multilatérales de développement commencent à se trouver de plus en plus isolés dans leur efforts pour faire passer les idées et la politique libérales dans le monde. L’intensification de la crise financière ne fait qu’affaiblir l’impact de leurs opinions. Comment les Etats-Unis ou les institutions multilatérales occidentales vont-elles pouvoir prôner la privatisation des banques avec tout cela?

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