De Karl Popper a Karl Rove: ida y regreso

NUEVA YORK – En su novela 1984 , George Orwell describió de manera escalofriante un régimen totalitario en el que todas las comunicaciones son controladas por un Ministerio de la Verdad y los disidentes son perseguidos por la policía política. Estados Unidos sigue siendo una democracia regida por una constitución y el imperio de la ley, con medios de comunicación pluralistas, y sin embargo hay señales perturbadoras de que los métodos de propaganda descritos por Orwell han echado raíz aquí.

De hecho, las técnicas para engañar han mejorado enormemente desde los tiempos de Orwell. Muchas de ellas fueron desarrolladas en relación con la publicidad y el mercadeo de productos y servicios comerciales, y luego se adaptaron a la política. Su característica distintiva es que se pueden comprar con dinero. En tiempos más recientes, la ciencia cognitiva ha ayudado a hacer estas técnicas más eficaces, dando origen a profesionales de la política que se concentran sólo en "lograr resultados".

Estos profesionales se enorgullecen de sus logros y hasta pueden llegar a disfrutar del respeto de un público estadounidense que admira el éxito sin importar cómo se consiga. Ese hecho tiende una sombra de duda sobre el concepto de Karl Popper de una sociedad abierta basado en el reconocimiento de que, si bien no es posible lograr un conocimiento perfecto, podemos llegar a una mejor comprensión de la sociedad a través del pensamiento crítico.

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