De Karl Popper à Karl Rove – et vice versa

NEW YORK – Dans son roman 1984 , George Orwell décrit un régime totalitaire terrifiant dans lequel toutes les communications sont contrôlées par un Ministère de la vérité et où les dissidents sont persécutés par la police politique. Si les Etats-Unis sont toujours une démocratie régie par une constitution et par l’État de droit, avec des médias pluralistes, des signes dérangeants révèlent que les méthodes de propagande décrites par Orwell y sont bien ancrées.

Les techniques de duperie ont été largement améliorées depuis l’époque d’Orwell. Bon nombre d’entre elles ont été élaborées en rapport avec la publicité et le marketing de produits et de services, puis adaptées à la politique – et ont la particularité de pouvoir être achetées. Plus récemment, les sciences cognitives ont permis de rendre les techniques de duperie encore plus efficaces, donnant naissance à des professionnels de la politique qui se concentrent uniquement sur « l’obtention de résultats ».

Ces professionnels sont fiers de leurs accomplissements et bénéficient même du respect d’un public américain qui admire le succès, quels que soient les moyens employés pour y parvenir. Cette situation sème le trouble dans le concept de société ouverte de Karl Popper fondé sur la reconnaissance que s’il est impossible d’atteindre la connaissance parfaite, nous pourrions au moins mieux comprendre la réalité en adoptant une pensée critique.

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