De Hubris a Némesis en la UE

PARÍS – En un principio el tratado de Lisboa de la Unión Europea fue recibido con entusiasmo, orgullo e incluso ensoberbecimiento. Prometía una forma más realista y racional de avanzar que el malhadado tratado constitucional que substituyó y muchos de sus partidarios abrigaban la esperanza de que una característica fundamental de su predecesor –el concepto de “patriotismo constitucional”– siguiera viva, pero, en cambio, el tratado de Lisboa ha traído el caos a la Unión. ¿Qué es lo que ha salido mal?

El patriotismo constitucional, concepto formulado por dos filósofos alemanes, Dolf Sternberger y Karl Jaspers, iba encaminado a substituir el nacionalismo que había quedado desacreditado en Alemania por su pasado nazi. Asimismo, a medida que la UE fuera evolucionando hasta llegar a ser un Estado federal, sus ciudadanos leales rechazarían el nacionalismo basado en afinidades étnicas y, en cambio, se identificarían con los principios democráticos de la constitución de la federación.

Esa fantasía fue rechazada inequívocamente por los votantes irlandeses, por lo que parece apropiado recordar que los antiguos griegos, que legaron la palabra “hubris” al mundo occidental, la consideraban un augurio de tragedia que conducía a la perdición o “némesis”.

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