De De Gaulle a Putin

PARIS – Hace cincuenta años, el general Charles de Gaulle tomó el poder en Francia en lo que fue, en esencia, un golpe de estado legal. Es verdad, el general había sido convocado y elegido por el titubeante Parlamento francés. Pero la presión del ejército francés, y la rebelión en Argelia, no le dejaron al Parlamento demasiada opción. Los afligidos líderes políticos de la república francesa esperaban que De Gaulle pudiera poner fin a la guerra de Argelia, y al mismo tiempo lograra que Argelia siguiera siendo francesa. La agenda de De Gaulle era muy diferente: él quería reescribir la constitución y fundar una nueva "Quinta República" para Francia.

La guerra en Argelia era, para De Gaulle, un síntoma más de un estado disfuncional, un análisis que se remontaba a sus propias experiencias en 1940, cuando el gobierno francés no había podido resistir la invasión de la Alemania de Hitler. Sólo un líder fuerte, pensaba De Gaulle, podía haber evitado la derrota.

En sus memorias, De Gaulle manifestó su preferencia por el restablecimiento de la monarquía después de la liberación. Pero la opinión pública no estaba preparada para eso, y los herederos a la corona francesa no estaban a la altura de la misión. La alternativa era un monarca electo: la constitución de la Quinta República, ratificada hace cincuenta años esta semana, fue redactada alrededor de ese principio central.

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