Von de Gaulle bis Putin

PARIS – Vor fünfzig Jahren ergriff General Charles de Gaulle in Frankreich die Macht. Dabei handelte es sich eigentlich um einen legalen Staatsstreich. Freilich wurde der General von einem strauchelnden französischen Parlament dazu aufgefordert und auch gewählt. Allerdings hatte das Parlament aufgrund des Drucks der französischen Armee und der Rebellion in Algerien keine andere Wahl. Die marode politische Führung der französischen Republik hoffte, dass de Gaulle den Krieg in Algerien beenden, das Land aber dennoch unter französischer Vorherrschaft halten würde. De Gaulle verfolgte jedoch andere Pläne: Er wollte die Verfassung neu schreiben und eine „Fünfte Republik“ gründen.

Der Krieg in Algerien war für de Gaulle nämlich nur ein weiteres Symptom für einen nicht funktionierenden Staat. Zu dieser Einsicht gelangte er aufgrund seiner eigenen Erfahrungen im Jahr 1940, als die französische Regierung der Invasion Hitler-Deutschlands nichts entgegensetzen konnte. Nur ein starker Staatschef hätte die Niederlage verhindern können, dachte de Gaulle.

In seinen Memoiren legte de Gaulle seine Präferenz für eine Wiederherstellung der Monarchie nach der Befreiung dar. Aber die Öffentlichkeit war dafür nicht bereit und die französischen Thronerben waren dieser Aufgabe nicht gewachsen. Die Alternative war ein gewählter Monarch: Die vor 50 Jahren ratifizierte Verfassung wurde rund um dieses zentrale Prinzip gebaut.

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