Barrie Maguire

Sécurité en Asie: il faut jouer collectif

MANILA – Les hôtes de passage agissent souvent comme des catalyseurs de changement et Barack Obama, qui achève sa tournée en Asie, ne fera sans doute pas exception. Sa visite a en effet amené les responsables asiatiques à s’interroger sur les enjeux de leur future communauté régionale.

La communauté pan-asiatique, telle qu’elle existe aujourd’hui, est née du traumatisme que la crise financière et économique de 1997 a causé en Asie orientale. Tous les pays de cette région ont appris à leurs dépens comment leurs réformes nationales et protectionnistes pouvaient s’avérer d’une inadéquation tragique. Peu après, un consensus s’établissait entre nombre de leurs dirigeants, sur la nécessité pour eux de collaborer plus étroitement et de consolider leurs alliances.

Mais cette leçon, les membres de l’APEC (Coopération économique des pays d’Asie-Pacifique), attachés qu’ils étaient déjà à la libéralisation du commerce – un point fort qui leur permettrait de relancer l’économie – n’y furent pas insensibles durant la période de crise même. Dès 1997 en effet, la réunion des responsables économiques de l’APEC a très vite libéralisé 15 secteurs clé, parmi lesquels l’automobile, les produits chimiques, les ressources énergétiques et les mesures environnementales. La croissance économique asiatique de ces 12 dernières années ne peut laisser aucun doute sur l’efficacité de la libéralisation du commerce et des investissements.

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