Von der Christdemokratie zur muslimischen Demokratie?

BUDAPEST: In der Türkei ist in diesem Sommer die regierende Partei für Gerechtigkeit und Entwicklung (AKP) nur knapp einem Verbot durch das Verfassungsgericht des Landes entgangen. Die Staatsanwaltschaft hatte ihr vorgeworfen, sie versuche das Land zu „islamisieren“ und letztlich eine Theokratie einzuführen. Nach der Entscheidung feierten nicht nur die AKP-Anhänger; auch jene im Westen, die die AKP als prototypische „muslimisch-demokratische“ Partei ansehen, stießen einen Seufzer der Erleichterung aus.

Modell für eine gemäßigt religiöse Partei, die sich zu den demokratischen Spielregeln bekennt, stehen eindeutig die christdemokratischen Parteien Westeuropas und, in geringerem Umfang, Lateinamerikas. Die Gegner der Idee von der „muslimischen Demokratie“ freilich argumentieren, dass sich die europäischen Katholiken nur auf Anweisung des Vatikans der Demokratie zugewandt hätten, und da die Muslime nichts einer kirchlichen Hierarchie Ähnelndes hätten, sei die Christdemokratie als Beispiel nicht relevant.

Die Geschichte zeigt freilich, dass politische Neuerer und liberalisierende katholische Intellektuelle bei der Schaffung der Christdemokratie eine entscheidende Rolle spielten. Dies legt nahe, dass muslimische Reformer unter den richtigen Umständen in ähnlicher Weise in der Lage sein könnten, eine muslimische Demokratie herbeizuführen.

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