Von der Zentralbank zur zentralen Planung?

BERKELEY – Seit über 170 Jahren geht man von der Lehrmeinung aus, dass man sich nicht auf die Märkte verlassen kann, wenn es einen Liquiditätsengpass gibt. Wenn sogar die Preise von sicheren Anlagen fallen und die Zinssätze in die Höhe schießen, da Händler sowie Finanziers zusammen mehr liquide Mittel wollen, als derzeit vorhanden sind, ist es einfach nicht sicher, es den Märkten zu überlassen, die Dinge zu regeln.

In solchen Zeiten müssen die Zentralbanken einschreiten und den Preis für flüssige Mittel auf einem vernünftigen Niveau festlegen, also einen zentral geplanten und regulierten Preis bestimmen, anstatt ihn je nach Angebot und Nachfrage des privaten Sektors frei schwanken zu lassen. Das ist die Lehre vom „Lender of last resort“ – dem Kreditgeber der letzten Instanz.

Über die Hälfte dieser Zeit – ungefähr 85 Jahre lang – wurde zudem von der Lehrmeinung ausgegangen, dass man sich auf die Märkte auch in normalen Zeiten nicht verlassen kann, aus Furcht, dass dies zu einem Liquiditätsengpass oder einer Inflationsblase führen könnte. Also müssen die Zentralbanken den Preis für liquide Mittel auf dem Markt tagein, tagaus festlegen.

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