Libertad, no democracia, para Rusia

En este mes hace veinte años, Mijail Gorbachov inició sus políticas de perestroika y glasnost, que propiciaron el fin de la guerra fría. Sin embargo, ahora las relaciones entre Rusia y Occidente han vuelto a enfriarse. Con frecuencia se critica al Presidente Vladimir Putin por llevar a Rusia por una dirección equivocada. Los mismos que en 2000 dijeron que Putin era un hombre con el que daba gusto tratar están empezando a dudarlo. Personas en tiempos fascinadas por Putin ahora lo censuran en público.

Putin replica acusando a Occidente de intentar debilitar y desmembrar a Rusia. Cuando políticos de Occidente lo comparan con Mugabe o Mussolini, los asesores de Putin en el Kremlin recuerdan a los apaciguadores de Múnich que intentaban incitar a Hitler a lanzarse hacia el Este. El propio Putin acusó en cierta ocasión a Occidente de intentar encauzar el radicalismo islámico hacia Rusia.

¿A qué se debe ese marcado cambio de tono? Al principio, la mayoría de las naciones que abandonaron el comunismo se volvieron casi instintivamente hacia su época precomunista inmediata. Los Estados bálticos restablecieron sus constituciones del decenio de 1930, los armenios y los azeríes restablecieron sus partidos políticos de finales del decenio de 1910 y la Europa oriental, con la excepción de Alemania Oriental, que se reunificó con la República Federal, volvió a ser una vez más y de repente Mitteleuropa.

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