La liberté, et non la démocratie, pour la Russie

Il y aura vingt ans ce mois-ci que Mikhail Gorbachev a commencé ses politiques de la perestroika et de la glasnost, qui ont entraîné la fin de la Guerre froide. Une nouvelle froideur s’immisce toutefois actuellement dans les relations entre la Russie et l’Occident. Le président Vladimir Putin est fréquemment critiqué pour avoir entraîné la Russie dans la mauvaise direction. Les personnes mêmes qui, en 2000, considéraient Putin comme un homme avec lequel ils pouvaient traiter ont changé leur fusil d’épaule. Les individus jadis fascinés par Putin le critiquent maintenant publiquement.

Putin riposte en accusant l’Occident d’essayer d’affaiblir et de démembrer la Russie. Alors que les politiciens d’Occident le comparent à Mugabe ou à Mussolini, les aides du Kremlin de Putin invoquent les pacificateurs de Munich qui ont tenté de pousser Hitler vers l’est. Putin lui-même a autrefois critiqué l’Ouest pour avoir essayé de canaliser le radicalisme musulman vers la Russie.

Pourquoi ce changement radical de ton ? A l’origine, la plupart des nations sortant du communisme sont entrées, presque instinctivement, dans leur période précommuniste immédiate. Les pays baltes ont remis en vigueur leurs constitutions des années 1930, les Arméniens et les Azeris ont ressuscité leurs partis politiques de la fin des années 1910 et l'Europe de l'Est, à l'exception de l'Allemagne de l'Est, qui a été réunifiée avec la République fédérale, est soudainement redevenue la Mitteleuropa.

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