Freiheit, Blasphemie und Gewalt

PARIS. Die gewalttätigen Angriffe auf diplomatische Vertretungen der US in Nordafrika und im Nahen Osten haben einmal mehr die Frage aufgeworfen, wie man reagieren sollte, wenn Amerikaner und andere Angehörige westlicher Länder provokative Äußerungen tätigen, die andere als Blasphemie betrachten. Obwohl der Anschlag auf die US-Vertretung in Bengasi, bei dem Botschafter J. Christopher Stevens und drei seiner Mitarbeiter ermordet wurden, durchaus geplant gewesen sein mag, wie es das US-Außenministerium behauptet, haben die Täter eindeutig die Gelegenheit ausgenutzt, die die durch einen in den USA produzierten anti-muslimischen Film geschaffene Empörung ihnen bot.

Es hat in den letzten Jahren mehrere Fälle gegeben, in denen als Blasphemie empfundene Vorfälle zur Androhung von Gewalt oder sogar zu Morden führten  – von der Veröffentlichung von Salman Rushdies Roman Die Satanischen Verse vor mehr als zwei Jahrzehnten bis zu den Mohammed-Karikaturen in der dänischen Tageszeitung Jyllands-Posten. In den Niederlanden wurde Theo Van Gogh auf einem Amsterdamer Fußweg wegen seines Films Submission, der die Behandlung von Frauen durch den Islam kritisierte, ermordet.

Selbst manche, die in jenen Fällen für die Redefreiheit eintraten, tun sich heute schwer damit. Diesmal ist der Film, der die Ausschreitungen in Kairo, Bengasi, Sana usw. ausgelöst hat, so ordinär und hetzerisch, dass man eindeutig den Anschein hat, er sollte die von ihm ausgelöste Empörung herbeiführen.

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