Un libre-échange à visage humain

MEXICO CITY – Quantité d'Américains trouvent que l'immigration est une affaire de politique intérieure qui devrait rester en dehors des pourparlers entre gouvernements. Ce point de vue n'est pas celui des nations, jusques et y compris des Etats-Unis. Ce pays, en effet, a passé son premier accord sur l'immigration dès 1907, a maintenu pendant plus de vingt ans, malgré des controverses, un traité avec le Mexique protégeant l'immigration, et a poursuivi le dialogue et les accords d'immigration, y compris avec Fidel Castro, depuis le début des années 1960.

Pour beaucoup de pays latino-américains, comme pour le Mexique, l'immigration est le problème numéro un de leurs relations avec les Etats-Unis. Les îles de la Caraïbe ont, les unes autant que les autres, un pourcentage élevé de ressortissants aux Etats-Unis, dont ils dépendent, autant que le Mexique, pour leurs envois de fonds. Cela vaut aussi pour une grande partie de l'Amérique centrale. Aucun pays d'Amérique du Sud n'échappe à ce schéma.

C'est donc l'Amérique latine dans son ensemble qui est durement touchée par le climat qui s'est abattu sur l'immigration américaine. Une réforme globale de l'immigration, telle que John McCain et Barack Obama l'ont soutenue, lui serait plus qu'utile. Les barrières le long de la frontière américano-mexicaine, les raids sur les lieux de travail et d'hébergement, l'arrestation et la déportation d’étrangers sans papiers, ces mesures fâcheuses prises par le gouvernement Bush sont ressenties en Amérique latine comme hypocrites et blessantes. La question est d'autant plus irritante et frustrante que la plupart des ministères des Affaires étrangères latino-américains savent pertinemment qu'il ne s'agit que de politique politicienne et rien de plus.

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