Jon Krause

حرية التعبير تحت الحصار

لندن ـ في مهرجان أدبي أقيم مؤخراً في بريطانيا، وجدت نفسي عضواً في لجنة تناقش حرية التعبير. وتمثل حرية التعبير بالنسبة لليبراليين مؤشراً رئيسياً للحرية. وتدافع الأنظمة الديمقراطية عن حرية التعبير؛ أما الأنظمة الديكتاتورية فتعمل على قمعها.

وعندما ننظر نحن في الغرب إلى الخارج، فإننا نؤكد على تبنينا لوجهة النظر هذه. فنحن ندين الحكومات التي تخرس وتسجن بل وتقتل الكتاب والصحافيين. وتحتفظ منظمة مراسلون بلا حدود بقائمة تؤكد مقتل 24 صحافيا، وسجن 148 آخرين، في هذا العام فقط. وجزء من الوعد الذي نراه في "الربيع العربي" يتخلص في تحرير وسائل الإعلام من قبضة الطغاة.

ورغم ذلك، تخضع حرية التعبير في الغرب لضغوط شديدة. فتقليديا، فرض القانون البريطاني قيدين رئيسيين على "الحق في حرية التعبير"، حيث حظر القيد الأول استخدام كلمات أو عبارات من المحتمل أن تعمل على الإخلال بالنظام العام؛ وكان القيد الثاني في هيئة قانون ضد التشهير. ويستند القيدان إلى أسباب وجيهة ـ الحفاظ على السلام، وحماية سمعة الأفراد من الأكاذيب. والواقع أن أغلب المجتمعات الحرية ترى أن مثل هذه القيود مقبولة ومعقولة.

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