Jon Krause

Die französische Gerichtsrevolution

PARIS – Das französische Wörterbuch der Politik ist um ein neues und wichtiges Akronym reicher geworden: QPC, das für den eher sperrig daher kommenden Begriff „Prioritäts-Vorabentscheidung zu Verfassungsfragen“ steht. Unter QPC, die Teil der Verfassungsreform war, die Frankreich im Juli 2008 umsetzte, kann jetzt jeder Bürger, der an einem Gerichtsverfahren beteiligt ist, die Verfassungsmäßigkeit einer Rechtsvorschrift anfechten.

Dies ist eine weit reichende Innovation. Frankreich wurde lange von der Philosophie Jean-Jacques Rousseaus beherrscht, die das Gesetz, also den Ausdruck des allgemeinen Willens, in der Hierarchie der Gesetzesnormen ganz oben einstufte. Das brachte mit sich, dass eine große Abneigung dagegen vorherrschte, die Verfassungsmäßigkeit eines Gesetzes zu bewerten.

Eine wie auch immer beschränkte Bewertung eines Gesetzes durch den so genannten Verfassungsrat Conseil Constitutionnel war überhaupt erst nach der Verfassung durch  Charles de Gaulle 1958 möglich und dann auch nur unter Beachtung weit reichender Vorgaben. Tatsächlich machte der Verfassungsrat seine Bewertungen a priori, einen Monat nach Verabschiedung des Gesetzes, und es konnten nur vier Parteien eine Bewertung einleiten: der Präsident, der Premierminister, die Präsidenten des Parlaments und der Senat.

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