La política de la identidad en Francia

Una de las grandes sorpresas de la actual campaña presidencial en Francia es cómo la “identidad nacional” ha pasado al primer plano del debate político. Durante la campaña presidencial de 2005, los temas principales eran el desempleo y las divisiones sociales. En 2002, la prioridad fue la seguridad. Pero esta vez, los tres principales candidatos –Nicolas Sarkozy, Segolene Royal y Francois Bayrou—le han dado una configuración totalmente distinta a la campaña.

Sarkozy, por ejemplo, propone establecer un ministerio de inmigración e identidad nacional. Igualmente, si bien Royal conserva cuidadosamente la distinción entre nación y nacionalismo, se está distanciando del apoyo tradicional del Partido Socialista a La Internacional para defender en cambio a La Marsellesa y sugiere que todos los ciudadanos deberían desplegar una bandera francesa el día nacional. Bayrou critica la “obsesión nacionalista” de sus competidores, pero apoya la abrogación del jus soli (el derecho a obtener la nacionalidad francesa por nacimiento) para las personas de la isla francesa de Mayotte, debido a los enormes flujos de mujeres embarazadas que llegan ahí.

Por su parte, el líder de la extrema derecha, Jean-Marie Le Pen, dice que le alegra esta evolución. En efecto, el debate sobre la identidad nacional no es nada nuevo. El problema es que la identidad francesa siempre ha estado conformada por elementos contradictorios y en ocasiones opuestos, como las tradiciones católicas y seculares del país, su ideología revolucionaria y sus preferencias conservadoras, y los enfoques culturales de sus ciudadanos campesinos y obreros.

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