El sueño roto de Francia

CAMBRIDGE – La crisis en la eurozona es el resultado de la persistente búsqueda por parte de Francia del "proyecto europeo", el objetivo de unificación política que comenzó después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial cuando dos políticos prominentes franceses, Jean Monnet y Robert Schuman, propusieron la creación de los Estados Unidos de Europa.

Monnet y Schuman sostenían que una unión política similar a la de Estados Unidos impediría los tipos de conflicto que habían causado tres guerras europeas importantes -una idea atractiva que, sin embargo, pasaba por alto el horror de la Guerra Civil de Estados Unidos-. Una unión política europea también podía convertir a Europa en una potencia comparable a Estados Unidos y así darle a Francia, con su sofisticado servicio exterior, un papel relevante en los asuntos europeos y mundiales.

El sueño de Monnet y Schuman llevó al Tratado de Roma de 1956, que estableció una pequeña área de libre comercio que luego se expandió para formar la Comunidad Económica Europea. La creación de la CEE tuvo efectos económicos favorables, pero, al igual que el Área de Libre Comercio de Norteamérica, no redujo la identificación nacional ni creó una sensación de unidad política.

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