法国难以为继

周期性的爆发抗议是法国痼疾的标志。最近发生的两次事件¾¾去年秋天发生在法国城市的暴乱与纵火,以及今年初对管理新加入劳动力市场的青年劳动者的新法律进行抗议的成功的学生运动¾¾这两者乍看上去好像并没有什么共同之处。但青年、失业、对未来的迷茫,以及造成全国性痼疾泛滥的令人窒息的国家温情主义,却像线索一样把它们紧紧地联系在一起。

仅以就业安全这一诱人的前景为例。法国政府为实现这一目标采取了它们唯一熟悉的方式¾¾那就是不断地加强管理。结果不出所料,令解雇现有员工变得困难重重的规定使得雇主们不敢轻易尝试雇佣新人。于是,在现有就业员工享受慷慨保障的同时,也为尚在就业体系之外的成百上千万人设置了不可逾越的就业障碍。

其结果是,近10年来的平均失业率达到了10%,而且已经有20年在8%以上徘徊。更有甚者,尽管总体失业率一直在一个令人震惊的基数上保持稳定,但是在16到24岁年龄段的青年人当中,失业率已经从1990年的15.3%跃升至2005年的21.4%。

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