Antonio Saba/Getty Images

Mengarahkan Masa Depan

SAN FRANCISCO – Berbagai teknologi baru berkembang sebegitu cepatnya sampai-sampai kita kesulitan mengendalikan dampaknya terhadap masyarakat. Mulai dari dampak terhadap cara kita melakukan pekerjaan hingga makna kehidupan individual dan bermasyarakat, perubahan-perubahan teknologi bisa membuat kewalahan jika kita tidak bekerja sama untuk memahami dan mengendalikannya.

Keseluruhan industri tengah disusun ulang dan dibuat dari nol, berkat perkembangan-perkembangan revolusioner di bidang kecerdasan buatan (artificial intelligence), robotika, the Internet of Things, kendaraan swakemudi/otonom (autonomous vehicles), percetakan 3D (3D printing), nanoteknologi, bioteknologi, ilmu/teknik material (materials science), penyimpanan energi (energy storage), dan komputasi kuantum (quantum computing). Kami di World Economic Forum menyebut gelombang inovasi ini sebagai “Fourth Industrial Revolution” atau Revolusi Industri Keempat, sebab penemuan tersebut mengubah hidup, cara kerja, dan sikap kita terhadap orang lain secara fundamental.

Teknologi-teknologi baru seperti mesin uap dan cotton mill menandai munculnya Revolusi Industri Pertama, yang didampingi dengan perkembangan sosial-politik yang monumental seperti urbanisasi, pendidikan massal, dan mekanisasi pertanian. Berkat elektrifikasi dan produksi massal, Revolusi Industri Kedua memperkenalkan jenis-jenis pekerjaan baru. Kemudian, melalui kemunculan teknologi digital dan telekomunikasi cepat, Revolusi Industri Ketiga yang berlangsung dalam lima dekade terakhir, sukses menghubungkan individu dan kelompok dan menghilangkan ruang dan waktu.

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