国际非政府组织的卓越之道

墨尔本—很久以前我们就已经明白,许多非国家行动方在国际政策决定方面比许多主权国家更有影响力。没人会怀疑跨国大公司和恐怖组织所能掀起的冲击,不管是好是坏。但一些国际非政府组织(INGO)的作用比通常认为的还要打,为什么会如此?值得探索。

根据最新统计,大约有40 000个非政府组织(NGO)为国际性组织,绝大多数主要专注于卫生、教育、福利、经济、产业、能源、环境、人权、社会政策以及治理和发展相关问题。主要专注于和平和安全问题的NGO要少得多(大概只有几百家),不过一些主要专注于人权的组织,比如人权观察组织(Human Rights Watch)和国际特赦组织(Amnesty International)在这方面也很活跃。

寻求影响对外政策的NGO总是被不太友好地称为“思想者”(thinker)、“谈话者”(talker)和“实干者”(doer)。换句话说,他们总是纯粹的智库、研究机构和政策论坛(比如伦敦的漆咸楼(Chatham House)、纽约的对外关系委员会(Council on Foreign Relations)和华盛顿的布鲁金斯研究所);几乎完全专注于倡议活动的组织(比如人权观察组织、“够了”(Enough)组织、科尼2012(Kony 2012)组织、全球无核(Global Zero)组织);以及基于实地的有理有据有节地运作的组织,它们向调停人那样活动,参与能力和信心建设(比如圣艾志德(Sant’Egidio)的寻找共同基础(Search for Common Ground)组织和独立外交(Independent Diplomat)组织)。

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