greece flag Kostas Pikoulas/ZumaPress

Le fondamenta dell’economia fallita della Grecia

NEW YORK – Sono molti i politici e gli economisti che danno la colpa alle politiche di austerità (invocata dai creditori della Grecia) per il crollo dell’economia greca. In realtà i dati disponibili non evidenziano né politiche di grande austerità né tagli pubblici sufficientemente cospicui da giustificare l’enorme perdita di posti di lavoro. Ciò che mostrano tuttavia sono delle anomalie economiche radicate nei valori e nel credo della società greca.

Le pratiche del clientelismo (per acquisire voti) e del favoritismo (per ottenere favori) sono ben più diffuse nel settore pubblico greco che in altri paesi europei. Le pensioni dei dipendenti pubblici rispetto agli stipendi sono il doppio di quelle spagnole, mentre il governo greco tende a favorire l’élite del business, già agevolata da regimi esentasse,é ed alcuni dipendenti pubblici prendono lo stipendio senza mai presentarsi al lavoro.

Ci sono gravi anomalie anche nel settore privato (come l’enorme influenza degli interessi personali e delle élite politiche ed aziendali). Secondo gli ultimi dati disponibili, i profitti della Grecia, in termini di percentuale delle entrate aziendali, sono ad un clamoroso 46% mentre l’Italia è seconda con il 42% e la Francia terza con il 39%. (La percentuale tedesca è pari al 39%, quella degli Stati Uniti al 35% e del Regno Unito al 32%). Chi fa parte del sistema ottiene sussidi e contratti, mentre chi è fuori ha enormi difficoltà ad entrare. I giovani imprenditori greci poi tremano all’idea di costituire le proprie aziende in Grecia per timore che vengano usati documenti falsi per portargli via le aziende. Secondo la Banca Mondiale la Grecia è uno dei paesi più difficili in cui avviare un business ed il risultato è che la competizione per la quota di mercato è debole e ci sono quindi poche aziende con nuove idee.

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