greece flag Kostas Pikoulas/ZumaPress

希腊经济失败的根本

纽约—太多政客和经济学家认为紧缩——希腊债权人所强加的紧缩——是希腊经济崩溃的罪魁。但数据表明,以历史标准衡量,希腊的紧缩并不突出,政府削减支出也没有严重到可以解释巨大的就业岗位损失的程度。数据表明的是希腊社会的价值和信仰才是经济问题的根本。

希腊公共部门充斥着侍从主义(clientelism,以获得选票)和裙带主义(cronyism,以获得帮助)——远甚于欧洲其他国家。公职人员退休金与工资的最大比例是西班牙的近两倍;政府用免税地位宽待商业经营;一些国家雇员吃着空饷。

私人部门也是问题严重——最令人瞩目的便是利益集团和商业和政治精英影响力无处不在。据最新数据,希腊的利润占企业所得比例高达46%。意大利的这个数字位居第二,为42%,法国是第三名,为41%。(德国的这一比例为39%,美国为35%,英国为32%。)内部人士获得补贴和合同,而外部人士根本难以分一杯羹。令人惊讶的是,据说希腊年轻企业家很怕在国内开办企业,担心其他人用假文件私吞他们的公司。据世界银行的数据,希腊是欧洲最难开公司的地方之一。结果是市场份额的竞争很弱,很少出现带着新思维的新企业。

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